Persian Wars and the Rise of Athens


 The Persian Wars and the Rise of Athens


Social Studies



Overview: The essential question framing this activity was, “What led to the rise of Greek Culture?” Using Student Handout 2.1B – Background Information About the Persian Wars– History Alive! / The Ancient World curriculum, students generated a list of events and developed a class timeline of the period. Student went on to create behavior-over-time graphs of 2-3 different variables that changed overtime during Persian Wars i.e. Unity of the Greeks, Greeks success on battlefield, Persian success on the battlefield, etc.  As a class, they created a connection circle exploring the interdependencies and circular causality of the period.

ST Concepts & Habits


  • Circular causality

  • Feedback

  • Change over time

  • Delays

  • Mental models

  • Unintended consequences

Habits of a systems thinker:

  • Seeks to understand the “big picture”

  • Observes how elements within a systems change over time, generating patterns and trends

  • Identifies the circular nature of complex cause and effect relationships

  • Considers an issue fully and resists the urge to come to a quick conclusion

ST Tools

  • Behavior-over-time graphs

  • Connection Circles

  • Iceberg visual


Identify and analyze cause and effect relationships in history.

Identify and analyze characteristics, causes, and consequences of an event, issue, problem, or phenomenon.

Implemented by: Julie Schumann

Submitted by: Tim Taber

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